Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on prevention and treatment of the supporting structures of the teeth. The most common periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis.
Periodontal diseases are usually caused by gingivitis, i.e. gum inflammation; the symptoms include red, swollen, and sore gums that may bleed when brushing. Without understanding the reasons for bleeding gums, patients tend to resort to less frequent brushing, which accelerates the formation of plaque. In time, plaque spreads and calcifies, turning into tartar which can no longer be removed without professional intervention. In order to prevent further gum inflammation, it is necessary to see a specialist and have oral hygiene performed at a dental clinic.
Left untreated, gingivitis eventually causes damage not only to the gums, but also to the supporting structures of the teeth (bone, ligaments), setting off periodontitis. As periodontitis progresses, the gums become detached from the teeth, thus forming the so-called periodontal pocket. Over time, the periodontal pocket grows and deepens, leading to the intensified accumulation of plaque and subsequent formation of tartar. All of these processes ultimately affect the underlying tissues; the jaw bone becomes less dense, and tooth loss may occur.
Our clinic offers an integrated periodontal test which includes assessing the severity of periodontitis, measuring the depth of periodontal pockets, performing and discussing X-Rays. Based on the results of this test, our periodontist determines the root causes of the disease and recommends the most suitable course of treatment.
Stages of periodontal disease
Depending on the severity of periodontitis, a conservative or surgical treatment method may be applied.
- Professional oral hygiene,
- Removal of plaque and tartar,
- Curettage (minor surgery during which periodontal pockets are cleaned),
- Induced tissue regeneration.
- Surgical treatment of periodontal diseases,
- Correction of periodontal bone defects (implanting patient’s own or artificial bone).
If your gums are sore and you notice bleeding when brushing teeth, seek professional advice immediately – our dental specialists are here to help!
Sometimes, in order to avoid major risks to oral health and to ensure that future treatments are successful, surgical intervention is required. Oral surgery includes procedures like tooth extraction, implantation, correction of jaw bone, mucous membrane, root lengths, and gum recession (plastic surgery of gums).
There are many reasons why a tooth may need to be extracted; to name but a few – severe caries, chipping or breaking, malocclusion, disease of the surrounding tissues or tooth retention which may cause complications in the future. All tooth extraction procedures, both routine and complex, are performed under local anaesthesia (in some cases, under regional anaesthesia).
Routine Tooth Extraction
Routine tooth extraction is a simple surgical procedure during which the tooth is removed using special instruments, without any damage to the surrounding gums or bone.
Extraction of Erupted Molar Teeth
Erupted molar teeth usually need to be extracted due to damage and decay.
Molar teeth are located in the far ends of the upper/lower row, and so they are difficult to reach when brushing. This leads to rapid accumulation of plaque, causing caries and, with time, possible damage to the adjacent teeth as well as inflammation and soreness of the surrounding gums. Furthermore, molar teeth hardly engage in the chewing process and, thus, have no functional value. Because of all these reasons, it is recommended to have them extracted.
Extraction of Retained Teeth
Retained teeth are fully developed teeth that fail to erupt into the mouth. They are embedded in the bone and may cause serious complications, i.e. inflammation, damage to the roots of the adjacent teeth, formation of cysts, pain, etc. Retained teeth are extracted surgically by first making a small incision in the gums and removing a thin layer of bone covering the tooth.
After the extraction procedure, patients are advised to apply cold packs to the affected area to minimise swelling. Also, in order to ensure a smooth healing process, they must observe a special regime recommended by our clinician. Whether any medication is prescribed depends on the complexity of the procedure.
CORRECTIVE JAW SURGERIES
Bone Block Grafting
Bone block grafting is a corrective surgical procedure that is applied when a jaw bone is not wide enough to ensure safe implantation. The height and width of the bone decreases for the same reasons: after the loss of a tooth (as a result of injury or extraction), the bone becomes underloaded and starts declining. During the surgery, several incisions are made in the gums, and a block of patient’s own bone, taken out from the chin or another area of the jaw, is fixed where necessary using small titanium screws (a high-quality synthetic material which functions like bone may be used as a substitute). Gums are then sutured, and the new bone or its synthetic substitute naturalises itself in 4-9 months. This interventional procedure does not alter the appearance of or leave any marks on the face.
This procedure is used to correct minor bone defects and/or fill the bone in the area of a missing tooth for secure implantation. After making an incision in the gums, the problematic area is filled with the so-called bone substitute, covered with a special dissolving membrane, and then the gums are sutured. With time, bone substitute grows firm and turns bone-like.
Soft Tissue Augmentation
This procedure is used to correct soft tissue defects that may appear due to periodontitis, injury, bone augmentation or other reasons. It restores a healthy and natural appearance of gums.
Our clinic also offers treatment of receding gums. There are two ways in which this procedure may be performed: the first is when the surrounding gums are slightly released and then “pulled up” again, and the second is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the palate and transplanted to the affected area.
During your first visit, our dental surgeon will answer all your questions and explain in detail all the possible applications as well as the necessity, course, and safety of the relevant procedures.